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R & vanR Chapter 10 Quiz

Page 1 Questions

Please answer each of the following questions to help you self-assess your understanding of "Chapter 10: Causation" (Remler & Van Ryzin, 2010)
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2. Please Match the Term to Its Definition *This question is required.
Space Cell When the causal relationship is biased due to a common cause that is not accounted for. Another term for omitted variable bias.Situation when the presumed dependent variable (or outcome) is actually the cause of the presumed independent variable (or cause).Bias in an estimate of a causal effect due to reverse causation.When two correlated variables are presumed to be causally related but in fact are not and the correlation is entirely due to a common cause.Phenomenon that occurs when the independent variable is caused by variables or processes that also affect the dependent variable - or by the dependent variable itself.Phenomenon when the individuals studied, or someone acting on their behalf, choose their category or level of the independent variable of interest.A variable that is a cause of both the presumed dependent variable (or outcome) and the presumed independent variable (or cause).
Simultaneity Bias
Reverse Causation
Self-Selection
Confounding
Spurious Relationship
Endogeneity *This question is required
Common Cause
3. Please Match the Term to Its Definition *This question is required.
Space Cell Condition of the independent variable of interest is not caused by variables or processes that also affect the dependent variable - or by the dependent variable itself.Holding constant factors that could affect an outcome.Condition of independent variable of interest that occurs when it is caused by variables or processes that also affect the dependent variable - or by the dependent variable itself.The world as it would be without the cause present but everything else the same.When change in one variable produces change in another variable.The act of manipulating a treatment (presumed cause) to observe an effect - a causal effect.
Endogenous
Exogenous
Causation
Control
Experimentation
Counterfactual
4. A study falsely concluded that eating ice cream causes drowning because both increase during the summer months. Actually, the warmer weather leads people to go swimming more often, leading to more deaths due to drowning, and more people eat ice cream as the temperature rises. The correct explanation is called *This question is required.
5. A hypothesis is that that spending time hiking in the woods improves seasonal allergies. Hikers and non-hikers were surveyed, and hikers were found to have fewer seasonal allergies. People with allergies may choose not to hike in the woods. This is an example of *This question is required.
6. A study followed charter school students to observe their progress over time. The researchers tried to figure out what would have happened if the students had not attended the charter school. This imaginary condition is called the *This question is required.
7. A survey of a large population found self-reported health to be a positive significant predictor of happiness. In all likelihood, self-reported health in this study is *This question is required.
8. Which study shows the best evidence of causation? *This question is required.
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