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R & vanR Chapter 11 Quiz

Page 1 Questions

Please answer each of the following questions to help you self-assess your understanding of "Chapter 11: Observational Studies with Control Variables" (Remler & Van Ryzin, 2010)
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2. Please Match the Term to Its Definition *This question is required.
Space Cell Another term for common cause (or omitted variable), a confounder is a variable that causes (directly or indirectly) both the dependent variable and the independent variable of interest and leads to bias.When the causal relationship is biased due to a common cause, including a complex common cause, that is not accounted for.A variable representing a common cause that is used to stratify or statistically adjust the data to better estimate the causal effect with observational data.Variables that are not measured in the current data, particularly common causes that cause omitted variable bias because they are not used as control variables.Study in which researchers do not attempt to change or manipulate variables to test their effects; they simply observe or measure things as they are in the natural, unaltered world.To break the data into exhaustive and mutually exclusive groups.
Observational Study
Unmeasured Variables
Control Variable
Omitted Variable Bias
3. Program evaluators seek to estimate the causal effect of a program (X) on an outcome (Y) using observational data. The evaluators attempt to adjust their estimate for common causes (Z) that influence both X and Y. In this evaluation, the common causes (Z) are best described as *This question is required.
4. Which is NOT an example of an observational study? *This question is required.
5. A study found that eating junk food is related to getting cancer. Which of these statements is true? *This question is required.
6. High school students from low-income families sometimes work after school to bring in extra income. Because of the hours they spend working, they have less time to do homework, which can lead to poorer grades. A researcher explores the effect of family income on grades. What type of variable is working part time in this study? *This question is required.
7. To investigate the impact of population density on crime, a researcher compared average crime rates in low and high density neighborhoods. To control for poverty, which is related to both density and crime, he further stratified the data into low and high poverty neighborhoods. Instead of using this method of stratification, multiple regression analysis is often preferable because *This question is required.
8. Violent behaviors among high school students, such as carrying a weapon to school, are difficult to predict. Studies examining the determinants of these behaviors thus have weak explanatory power. The statistic that represents this idea is called *This question is required.
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